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"Artzy" Art during World War II


Introduction Unit Objectives
Unit-At-A-Glance/Lesson Plans Artzybasheff Bibliography
Teacher Resources Supplemental Activities
World War II WebQuests Literary Terms and Vocabulary
Student Chatroom Student Portfolios
Home University of North Texas
TEKS/TAKS Standards Online Tutorials
WWII Letters links Initial Artzybasheff images

Lesson #3

Literary Metaphor

 

 

 

Description:

This lesson helps students investigate answers to the following questions.  What is a literary metaphor? What does it mean? What are some examples? What would it look like visually?

 

Subject:           English Language Arts, Fine Arts, and Social Science

 

Duration:        100 min

 

Grade Levels:            8-12

 

 

Standards:

TX-110.24.8.22           Viewing/representing/interpretation. The student understands and interprets visual images, messages, and meanings.  

TX-110.24.8.23           Viewing/representing/analysis. The student analyzes and critiques the significance of visual images, messages, and meanings.

TX-110.24.8.23.A      TSIET... interpret and evaluate the various ways visual image makers such

as illustrators, documentary filmmakers, and political cartoonists represent meanings (6-8).

TX-110.24.8.24           Viewing/representing/production. The student produces visual images, messages, and meanings that communicate with others.

TX-110.24.8.24.A      TSIET... select, organize, or produce visuals to complement and extend

meanings (4-8).

TX-110.42.11.G          TSIET... recognize and interpret poetic elements like metaphor, simile, personification, and the effect of sound on meaning.

TX-110.42.19             The student understands and interprets visual representations.

TX-110.42.19.B          TSIET... analyze relationships, ideas, and cultures as represented in

various media.

TX-110.42.21              The student produces visual representations that communicate with others.

TX-110.43.19              The student understands and interprets visual representations.

TX-110.43.19.B          TSIET... analyze relationships, ideas, and cultures as represented in various media.

TX-110.43.20              The student analyzes and critiques the significance of visual

representations.

TX-110.43.21              The student produces visual representations that communicate with others.

TX-110.44.19              The student understands and interprets visual representations.

TX-110.44.20              The student analyzes and critiques the significance of visual

representations.

TX-110.44.21              The student produces visual representations that communicate with others.

TX-110.45.19              The student understands and interprets visual representations.

TX-110.45.19.B          TSIET... analyze relationships, ideas, and cultures as represented in various media.

TX-110.45.20              The student analyzes and critiques the significance of visual

representations.

TX-110.45.21              The student produces visual representations that communicate with others.

TX-110.46.3                The student produces visual representations that communicate with others.

TX-110.47.6.B            TSIET... respond to text through discussion, journal writing, performance, and visual representation.

TX-110.49.1                The student recognizes/interprets visual representations as they apply to

visual media.

TX-110.51.2.I             TSIET... determine and explain purposes and effects of figurative language,

particularly symbolic and metaphoric.

TX-113.32.c.14           The student understands the economic effects of World War II, the Cold War, and increased worldwide competition on contemporary society.

TX-113.32.c.14.A      TSIET... describe the economic effects of World War II on the home front,

including rationing, female employment, and the end of the Great Depression.

TX-113.32.c.6             The student understands the impact of significant national and international decisions and conflicts from World War II and the Cold War to the present on the United States.

TX-113.32.c.6.A         TSIET... identify reasons for U.S. involvement in World War II, including the growth of dictatorships and the attack on Pearl Harbor.

TX-113.32.c.6.B         TSIET... analyze major issues and events of World War II such as fighting the war on multiple fronts, the internment of Japanese-Americans, the Holocaust, the battle of Midway, the invasion of Normandy, and the development of and Harry Truman's decision to use the atomic bomb.

TX-128.ESL.42.11.7   TSIET... recognize and interpret poetic elements like metaphor, simile, personification, and the effect of sound on meaning; and

TX-128.ESL.51.2.9     TSIET... determine and explain purposes and effects of figurative language, particularly symbolic and metaphoric;

 

Resources: 

·        Examples of metaphors (copy attached to lesson.)

{http://www.mind.to/mindnotes/id30.htm}

 

·        Remember Dec. 7th (Image) (http://www.museumofworldwarii.com/images/TourPictures/08_Flag-Poster_lge.jpg)


Image to potentially use in conjunction with the metaphor "Emotions are forces".

 


·        Woman and Skull (Image) ( http://www.trinity.edu/mkearl/trophyskull.jpg)

Image to potentially use in conjunction with the metaphor "seeing is touching, eyes are our limbs".  (Attached to this lesson in an article found on the internet about this image.)


 

 


·        Explosion and Plane(Image) (http://www.bitmap-brothers.co.uk/images/world-war-ii/title01m.jpg)


Image to potentially use in conjunction with the metaphor "Anger is Heat".

                       

 

 

·        Bomb Shell (Image) (http://www.avi-writer.com/aboutbooks/bookcovers/dont_you_know_war.jpg)


Image to potentially use with the metaphor "A lustful person is an activated machine".                      

 


·        Hitler and Crowd (Image) (http://www.malaysiakini.com/imagebank/personalities/Hitler%20in%20command.jpg)

Image to potentially use with the metaphor "dangerous beliefs are contagious diseases".


                       

 


·        Rosie the Riveter (Image)  (http://www.bigdogdesign.com/rosie-the-riveter.jpg)

Image to potentially use with the metaphor "beliefs are guides".


 

 

 

 

 


Vocabulary:

·        Metaphor

A figure of speech in which a word or phrase that ordinarily designates one thing is used to designate another, thus making an implicit comparison, as in “a sea of troubles” or “All the world’s a stage”(Shakespeare)

{Source:  The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language.  Fourth Edition.  Houghton Miffin Company.2000 – provided by Dictionary.com}

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Goal:  

This unit of instruction is engineered to teach the students that there is a give and take relationship between art, and the culture and time period in which it was created.  This lesson reinforces that idea by demonstrating to students how the political and social beliefs of World War II, from the American perspective, are evident in images of the period.  Many of the political and social beliefs can be put into literary metaphorical terms.  Many of the images studied in other lesson incorporated in this unit include anthropomorphic images. Anthropomorphic images are metaphorical in nature. Therefor a lesson about metaphor is necessary to deepen student understanding.      

 

 

 

           

Objectives:

·        The student will demonstrate an understanding of the concept of metaphor in the literary sense by providing student generated examples both visually and textually.

·        The student will relate literary metaphors to cultural happening during World War II.

·        The student will associate literary metaphors to visual images.

 

 

 

Motivation:

After the bell has rung and the students are in the room.  You look around… and you see some students are visiting with other students… and a student or two running in the room trying to beat that tardy bell…. and every now and then you see a student looking at you waiting for you to deliver some of your mighty wisdom.  Just begin to read the following poem to the class.  Then read it to the class again.  Maybe even a third time.  (It is good for the students to hear the poem again so they can think about the words in relationship to one another.  Most of the students were probably settling down because the realized the teacher was reading to them and as a result they did not get to hear the entire poem the first time.)

 

 

 

Metaphor for a Family

 

My family lives inside a medicine chest:
Dad is the super-size band-aid, strong and powerful
but not always effective in a crisis.
Mom is the middle-size tweezer,
which picks and pokes and pinches.
David is the single small aspirin on the third shelf,
sometimes ignored.
Muffin, the sheep dog, is a round cotton ball, stained and dirty,
that pops off the shelf and bounces in my way as I open the door.
And I am the wood and glue which hold us all together with my love.

By: Belinda

{Source: http://images.trafficmp.com/tmpad/content/netflix/nflx_tmp_toaster0203.html}

 

           

After you have read the poem to the students discuss it with the class.  Talk about the people in the poem and what they are compared to.  What do these comparisons imply about the people?  Continue the discussion and ask questions as the conversation continues.  This sets the stage to introduce the term ‘metaphor’ and to move onto the procedure portion of this lesson.

 

 

 

Procedure:     

1.      Present the definition of metaphor according to the American Heritage Dictionary. Discuss this definition with the students and discuss literary examples such as "a sea of troubles" and "All the world's a stage". Use some more examples of metaphor and discuss their meaning with the students. (A list of metaphors is attached to this lesson.)

 

 

2.      Play the metaphor game. In the resource section of this lesson there are six images with suggested correlating metaphors. Choose one of the images and related metaphor and discuss with the students why the metaphor might be appropriate for the image. Do this with the entire class and encourage feedback from the students. Divide the class into small groups. Give each group a set of five of the images. Also give each of the groups the five related metaphors on separate cards. Have the groups sort the images and metaphors. There should be one metaphor linked to each image. The groups may have different responses. Different groups may link images to different metaphors, that is fine. However, students need to discuss with the class their selections and be able to defend their choices.

 

 

3.      Students will write their own metaphors. Students will individually write at least two metaphors. The first will be a metaphor that relates to World War II. For example, Nazis were killing machines. (In the previous lessons students studied the political and social issues present during World War II.) The second metaphor should be a metaphor that relates to a contemporary issue. This issue could be a social or personal issue.

 

 

4.      Students will select one of the two metaphors they wrote to create a visual representation. Students should be reminded to complete the visual representations with care and attention to detail. These will be presented and discussed by the class.

 

 

5.      Students will then return to the Boris Artzybasheff image presented in the first lesson. Students will discuss the concept of literary metaphor in regards to the image. Does this image inspire a literary metaphor? If so, give an example? Also look at the notes from the brainstorming session from the introduction to the initial Artzybasheff image to see if there is inspiration for metaphor. If so, what is it?

 

                      

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(Above image provided by The University of North Texas Library.)

 

 

Assessment:  

A portion of this lesson requires students to associate World War II images with metaphors and defend why the metaphor works with the image.  The level at which the student can explain and defend the association of the image to the metaphor demonstrates the level of the students understanding of the concepts involved. Another portion of this lesson requires the student to write and illustrate a metaphor.  The level at which the student is able to write a metaphor and illustrate the metaphor demonstrates the students understanding of the concepts involved.  (Refer to the rubric at the end of this unit.)

 

 

Materials:

·        Sets of image and metaphor cards for each group.  (You can make these using the images and metaphors in the resource section of the lesson.)

·        Examples of metaphors.  (Attached to lesson.)

·        Paper for writing metaphors.

·        Drawing paper for illustrating metaphors.

·        Colored pencils for adding color to the drawings if you or the students desire.  (You may substitute another medium if desired.)

·        The Boris Artzybasheff Image discussed in the first lesson of this unit.  It is also in this lesson under ‘procedure’ step number five.

·        Brainstorming notes from the first lesson about the Boris Artzybasheff image.

 

 

 

                                   

Background:

·        You might want to review the information from the previous lesson about World War II.

·        Metaphor

A figure of speech in which a word or phrase that ordinarily designates one thing is used to designate another, thus making an implicit comparison, as in “a sea of troubles” or “All the world’s a stage”(Shakespeare)

{Source:  The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language.  Fourth Edition.  Houghton Miffin Company.2000 – provided by Dictionary.com}

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lesson by Sandra S. Newton